Wadi Hammamt Watch TowerContents


It says something about the Internet that a bibliography needs an introduction.  This Bibliography is divided into two parts.  The first part, Publications, is a standard listing of references that can be found in print.

 However, the second part Online Resources consists of information that can only be found on the Web.  This makes the second part a potentially ephemeral source of reference, with information moving to new web addresses or being eliminated completely. 

In the main text throughout this site, standard publications are referenced by surname and date of publication.  Publications available  only online as websites, web pages or downloads are referenced by the name of the author, where shown on the site concerned, and highlighted by the initials WR (meaning “Web Reference”). Where WR is written next to the name and date, it will be found in the Online Resources section with a full URL to the correct page (correct, at least, at time of writing). 

In the event that any of the web links cease to work, please let me know.  I will be most grateful and I will try to supply a new address for the same information.


Aldred, C. 1998 (3rd Edition)
The Egyptians
Thames and Hudson

Almagro Basch, M. and Almagro Gorbea, M. 1968
Estudios de arte rupestre nubio I.  Yacimientos situados en la orilla oriental del Nilo, entre Nag Kolodna y Kars Ibrim (Nubia Egipcia)
Memorias de la Mision Arqueologica X.  Madrid

Anati,  Ariela Fradkin 1985
Who’s Who in Rock Art
Capo di Ponte: Edizioni del Centro

Anati, E. 1979
L’Art Rupestre: Negev et Sinai

Anati, E. 1997
L’Art Rupestre dans la Monde

Anati, E. 1999
The Rock Art of the Negev Desert
Near Eastern Archaeology 61: 1, 1999

Anderson, K., Domosh, M., Pile, S. and Thrift, N. 2003
Handbook of Cultural Geography

Arkell, A.J. 1975
The Prehistory of the Nile Valley
Handbuch der Orientalistik

Aston, B.G., Harrell, J.a. and Shaw, I. 2000
In (eds) Nicholson, P.T. and Shaw, I.
Ancient Egyptian Materials and technology
Cambridge, p. 5-77

Aufrere, S.H. 2002
The Deserts and the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Upper Egyptian Nomes during the Middle Kingdom
in Friedmann, R. (ed.)
Egypt and Nubia:  Gifts of the Desert
The British Museum Press

Bahn, P.G. and Fossati, A. (eds) 1996
Rock Art Studies: News of the World
Oxbow Books

Bahn, P. 1997
The Cambridge Illustrated History of Prehistoric Art
Cambridge University Press

Banks, Kimball M. 1984
Climates, Culture and Cattle – The Holocene Archaeology of the Eastern Sahara
Southern Methodist University, Dallas, 1984

Bard, K. 1994
The Egyptian Predynastic:  A Review of the Evidence
J. Field Arch, Vol. 21, No. 3, Autumn 1994, p.265-288

Barfield, L. and Chippinale, c. 1997
Meaning in the Later Prehistoric rock Engravings of Mont Bego, Alpes-Maritimes, France
Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 63, 103-128

Barich, B.E. 1998
People, Water and Grain: The Beginnings of Domestication in the Sahara and the Nile Valley

Barich, B.E. 1998
The Wadi el-Obeyid Cave, Farafra Oasis:  A new pictorial complex in the Libyan Egyptian Sahara
Libya Antiqua – Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Libya, New Series IV, p.9-19

Barich, B.E. and Lucarini, G. 2002
Archaeology of Farafra Oawsis (Western Desert, Egypt).  A Survey of the most recent research
ArcheoNil, Numero 12, December 2002

Barnard, H. 2006
Eastern Desert Ware: fine pottery from an arid wasteland
Egyptian Archaeology 28 (Spring 2006), p.29-30.

Barnard, H. 2007
Additional remarks on Blemmyes, Beja and the Eastern Desert Ware
Accepted for publication in the next issue of Aegypten und Levante

Basch, M.A. and Gorbea 1968
Estudios de Arte Rupestre Nubio

Baumgartel, E.J. 1955
The Cultures of Prehistoric Egypt

Beck, B. 1978
The Metaphor as a Mediator Between Semantic and Analogic Modes of Thought
Current Anthropology 19, 83-97

Bednarik, R.G. and Khan, M. 2005
Scientific studies of Saudi Arabian rock art
Volume 22, Number 1, May 2005

Bell, L., Johnson, J.H., and Whitcomb, D. 1984
The Eastern Desert of Upper Egypt:  Routes and Inscriptions
Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol.43, No.1, Jan 1984, p.27-46

Bellwood, P. 2005
First Farmers:  The origins of agricultural societies
Blackwell Publishing

Bender. B. 1993
Landscape:  Politics and Perspective

Berg, R. 1998
Nomads and Pharaohs
Saudi Aramco World, May/June 1998, Volume 49, Number 3

Berger, M.A. 1992
Predynastic Animal-headed Boats from Hierakonpolis and Southern Egypt
In Friedman, R. & Adams, B. (eds)
The Followers of Horus: Studies Dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman, 1944-1990
Oxbow Monograph; 20

Bevan, L. 2000
Women’s Art, Men’s Art:  Gender specific image selection in the rock art of Valcamonica
In Nash, G. (ed)
Signifying Place and Space:  World Perspectives of Rock Art and Landscape
BAR International Series 902, p. 103-109

Bingen, J., Bülow-Jacobsen, A., Cockle, W.E.H., Cuvigny, H., Rubinstein, L., Van Rengen, W. 1992
Mons Claudianus: Ostraca Graecus et Latina. Volume 1
Institute Francais d’Archaeologie Orientale de Caire

Bingen, J., Bülow-Jacobsen, A., Cockle, W.E.H., Cuvigny, H., Rubinstein, L., Van Rengen, W. 1992 1997
Mons Claudianus: Ostraca Graecus et Latina. Volume 2
Institute Francais d’Archaeologie Orientale de Caire

Blackmore, S. 1999, 2000
The Meme Machine
Oxford Paperbacks

Blench, R.M. and MacDonald, K.C. 2000
The origin and development of African livestock.
University College Press

Bomann, A. 1994
Discoveries in the Eastern Desert
Egyptian Archaeology 4, p.29-30

Bomann, A. 1995
wadi Abu Had – Wad Ib, Eastern Desert
Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 81, p.14-7

Bomann, A. and Young, R. 1994
Preliminary survey in the Wadi Abu Had, Eastern Desert 1992
Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 80, p.23-44

Bradley, R. 1994
Symbols and signposts – understanding the prehistoric petroglyphs of the British Isles
In (eds) Renfrew, C. and Zubrow, E.B.W.
The ancient mind: Elements of cognitive archaeology
Cambridge University Press

Bradley, R. 1997
Rock Art and the Prehistory of Atlantic Europe:  Signing the Land

Bradley R, 2000
An archaeology of natural places

Brass, M. 2003
Tracing the Origins of the Ancient Egyptian Cattle Cult
In Ed. Eyma A.K., and Bennett, C.J.
A Delta Man in Yebu: Occasional Volume of the Egyptologists’ Electronic Forum No. 1
Universal Publishers

Breasted, J.H. 1906
Ancient Records of Egypt: Historical Documents from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest, Part One
University of Chicago Press

Brewer, D.J., Redford, D.B. and Reford, S. 1993
Domestic plants and animals:  The Egyptian origins
Aris and Phillips LTd

Brunton, G. and Caton-Thompson, G. 1928
The Badarian Civilization
BSAE 46, London

Butzer, K. 1959
Desert and River in Nubia
University of Wisconsin Press

Butzer, K. 1976
Early Hydraulic Civilization in Egypt: A Study in Cultural Ecology
University of Chicago Press

Callender, G. 2000
The Middle Kingdom Renaissance
In Shaw, I. 2000
The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt
Oxford University Press

Capart, J. 1904
Les debuts de l’art en Egypte

Caton-Thompson, G. 1952
Kharga Oasis in Prehistory
Athlone Press

Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. 2000
Genes, Peoples and Languages
Allen Lane, The Penguin Press

Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., Menozzi, P. and Piazza, A. 1994
The History and Geography of Human Genes
Princetone University Press

Cervicek, P. 1974
Felsbilder des Nord-Etbai, Oberagyptens und Unternubiens.  Ergebnisse der 8. DIAFE nach Agypten 1926
Wiesbaden:  K. Steiner Verlag

Cervicek, P. 1976
Catalogue of the Rock Art Collection of the Frobenius Institute
Drawings by Gisela Wittner and Photos by Margit Matthews.
Wiesbaden, Franz Steiner Verlag

Cervicek, P. 1978
Notes on the chronology of the Nubian rock art to the end of the Bronze Age
Etude Nubiennes, Collogue de Chantilly
BdE 77, p.35-56

Cervicek, P. 1980

Cervicek, P. 1986
Rock Pictures of Upper Egypt and Nubia
Annali, Istituto Universitario Orientale
Suppl. 46 ad vol. 46 fasc. 1

Cervicek, P. 1992-3
Chorology and Chronology of Upper Egyptian & Nubian Rock Art up to 1400BC
Sahara V, p.41-48

Cervicek, P. 1998
Rock Art and the Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts,
Sahara 10

Cherry. P. 2000a
Noah’s Egyptian Ark: A Field Guide to the Fauna of the Eastern Desert
The Followers of Horus:  Eastern Desert Survey Report volume 1
Institute for the Study of Interdisciplinary Sciences

Cherry, P. 2000b
The World’s Oldest Maps?  A preliminary study of the abstract rock-art lines
The Followers of Horus:  Eastern Desert Survey Report volume 1
Institute for the Study of Interdisciplinary Sciences

Chippendale, C. and Tacon, P.S.C (eds) 1998
The Archaeology of Rock-Art (New Directions in Archaeology)
Cambridge University Press

Chippendale, C. and Tacon, P.S.C 1998
The many ways of dating Arnhem Land rock-art, north Australia
In Chippendale, C. and Tacon, P.S.C (eds) 1998, p.90-111
The Archaeology of Rock-Art (New Directions in Archaeology)
Cambridge University Press

Chippindale, C. and Nash, G. 1999 (eds)
The Figured Landscapes of Rock-Art: Looking at Pictures in Place
Cambridge University Press

Clark, G. 1982
The Identity of Man

Clottes J. 2002
World Rock Art
Getty Publications.

Coote,J. 1992
Marvels of Everyday Vision: The Anthropology of Aesthetics and the Cattle-Keeping Nilotes
In J. Coote & A. Shelton (eds)
Anthropology Art and Aesthetics
Clarendon Press

Coulson, D. and Campbell, A. 2001
African Rock Art. Paintings and engravings on stone
Harry N. Abrams.
Review of Coulson and Campbell 2001 by Geoffrey Blundell, former deputy director of the Rock Art Research Institute at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesbur at:

Couyat, J. and Montet, P. 1912
Les Inscriptions Hieroglyphiques du Ouadi Hammamat
Institut Francais d’Archaeologie Orientale

Crowfoot-Payne, J.
Predynastic Chronology at Naqada
In Friedman, R. & Adams, B. (ed.s)
The Followers of Horus: Studies Dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman, 1944-1990
Oxbow Monograph; 20

Cunliffe, B. 2000
Landscapes with people
In Flint, K. and Morphy, H.
Culture, Landscape and the Environment:  The Linacre Lectures
Oxford University Press

Dahl, G. and Hjort-Af-Ornas, A. 2006
Precolonial Beja: A Periphery at the Crossroads
Nordic Journal of African Studies 15(4): 473–498 (2006)

Daniel, G. 1981
A short history of arcaheology
Thames and Hudson

Dargie, T.C.D. and El Demerdash, M.A. 1991
A quantitative study of vegetation – Environment relationship inn two Egyptian deserts
Journal of Vegetation Science, vol. 2, No. 1, p.3-10

Darnell, D. 2002
Gravel of the Desert and Broken Pots in the Road:  Ceramic Evidence from the Routes Between the Nile and Kharga Oasis
in Friedmann, R. (ed.)
Egypt and Nubia:  Gifts of the Desert
The British Museum Press

Darnell, J. 2002
Theban Desert Road Survey I: The Rock Inscriptions of Gebel Tjauti in the Theban Western Desert, Part 1, and the Rock Inscriptions of the Wadi el Hôl, Part 1. Oriental Institute Publication 117.  Chicago. (2002) (with contributions by Deborah Darnell, René Friedman, and Stan Hendrickx

Darnell, J. with the assistance of Darnell, D. 2002
Opening the Narrow Doors of the Desert:  Discoveries of the Theban Desert Road Survey
in Friedmann, R. (ed.)
Egypt and Nubia:  Gifts of the Desert
The British Museum Press

Davis, P.H. 1953
The Vegetation of the Deserts near Cairo
The Journal of Ecology, Vol. 41, no.1, (Jan 1953), p.157-173

Davis, W.M. 1978
Dating prehistoric rock drawings in Upper Egypt and Nubia
CA 19, p.216-217

Davis, W. 1984
The Earliest Art in the Nile Valley
In Krzyzaniak, L. and Kobusiewicz, M. (eds)
Origin and Early Development of Food-Producing Cultures in North-Eastern Africa, p.81-94

Davis, W. 1989
Dating Prehistoric Rock Art
Current Anthropology, 19, 1989

Davis, W. 1990
The Study of Rock Art in Africa
In Robertshaw, P. (ed)
A History of African Archaeology

Dawkins, R. 1976
The Selfish Gene
Oxford University Press

Debono, F. 1951
Expedition Archaeologique Royale au Desert Oriental (Keft-Kosseir):  Rapport Preliminaire sur la campagne 1949
ASAE 51, p. 59-110

Debono and Mortensen 1990
El Omari
Verlag Philipp Von Zabern

Dickman, J.L. 1984
An image digitising and storage system for use in rock art research
Volume 1, Number 1, May 1984

Di Lernia, S. 1999
Discussing pastoralism.  The case of the Acacus and surroundings
Sahara 11, p.7-20

Dittman, A. 1993
Environmental and climatic change in the northern part of the Eastern Desert during Middle Palaeolithic and Neolithic times
In  Krzyżaniak, L., Kobusiewicz, M. and Alexander, J (eds.)
Environmental change and human culture in the Nile Basin and northern Africa until the Second Millennium B.C.

Dorn, R.I., Clarkson, P.B., Nobbs, M.F., Loendorf, L.L., Whitley, D.S. 1992
New approach to the radiocarbon dating of rock varnish, with examples from drylands
Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol.82, no.1, March 1992, p.136-151

Dunbar, J.C. 1934
Some Nubian Rock Pictures
Sundan Notes and Records XVII,  p.139-167

Dunbar, J.H. 1941
The Rock Pictures of Lower Nubia
Cairo Govt. Press

EGSMA (Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority) 1979
The Mineral Map of Egypt – explanatory Notes and Lists
Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority, Cairo

el-Yahky, F. 1981
Remarks on the armless human figures represented on Gerzean boats
Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities 11, p.77-83

Eliade, M. 1954
The myth of the eternal return

Emery, w. 1961
Archaic Egypt

Emmanuel, A. 1977
Methods of Recording and Analysing Rock Engravings
Edizioni del Centro, 1977

Engelmayer 1965
Die Felsgravierungen im Distrikt Sayala-Nubien I:  Die Schiffsdarsellungen

Fakhry, A. 1952
The inscriptions of the amethyst quarries at Wadi el-Hdi

Fagg, M.C. 1997
Rock Music
Pitt Rivers Museum Occasional Paper on
Technology 14: 1-94

Fattovitch, R. 2005
Marsa Gawasis:  A Pharaonic Coastal Settlement by the Red Sea in Egypt
In Starkey, J.C.M. 2005 (ed)
People of the Red Sea
Proceedings of the Red Sea Project II
BAR International Series 1395
Society for Arabian Studies Monographs number 3

Fattovitch, R, Marks, A. and Mohammed-Ali, A. 1984
The archaeology of the Eastern Sahel, Sudan:  Preliminary results
African Archaeological Review 2, p. 173-188

Faulkner, R. 1940
Egyptian Seagoing Ships
JEA 26

Field, H. 1955
Rock Drawings from Uggper Egypt
Man, 55.

Flint, K. and Morphy, H. 2000 (eds)
Culture, Landscape, and the Environment: The Linacre Lectures 1997

Floyer, E.A. 1887
Notes on a sketch map of two routes in the Eastern Desert of Egypt
Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography New Monthly Series, vol.9, No.11, (November 1887), p.659-681

Forde-Johnston, J. 1959
Neolithic Cultures of North Africa

Frankfort, H. 1924
Studies in early pottery of the Near East, Vol. 1: Mesopotamia, Syria and Egypt and their earliest interrelations
Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland

Friedman, R. 1999
Pots, pebbles and petroglyphs. Part II. 1996 Excavations at Hierakonpolis Locality HK64
In Leahy and Tait 1999, p.101-108
Studies on Ancient Egypt in Honour of H.S. Smith
Egypt Exploration Society

Friedman, R. (ed) 2002
Egypt and Nubia: Gifts of the Desert
British Museum Press

Friedman, R. & Adams, B. (ed.s) 1992
The Followers of Horus: Studies Dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman, 1944-1990
Oxbow Monograph; 20

Friedman, R. and Hobbs, J.J. 2002
A Tasian tomb in Egypt’s Eastern Desert
In Friedman, R. (ed) 2002
Egypt and Nubia: Gifts of the Desert
British Museum Press

Friedman, R., Maish, A., Fahmy, a.G., Darnell, J.C., and Johnson, E.D. 1999
Preliminary report on field work at Hierakonpolis:  1996-1998
JARCE 36, p.1-35

Frobenius, L. 1927
Die Forschungsreise in die Nubische Wuste
Frakfort:  Heft 2

Frobenius, L. 1937
Prehistoric Rock Pictures in Europe and Africa
New York:  Museum of Modern Art

Fuchs, G. 1989
Rock Engravings in the Wadi El Barramiya
African Archaeological Review 7, No.1, December 1989, p.127-153

Fuchs, G. 1991
Petroglyphs in the Eastern Desert of Egypt:  New Finds in the Wadi El Barramiya
Sahara 4, 1991, p.59-70

Gabriel 1987

Gardin, J-C. 1958   
Four Codes for the Description of Artifacts: An Essay in Archeological Technique and Theory.
American Anthropologist 1958 Vol.60, p.335-357

Gardiner, A.H. and Peet, T.E. 1917
The Inscriptions of Sinai

Gauthier, Y, Gauthier, C. and Le Quellec, J-L. 1996
A consistent nomenclature for the rock art sites of the Sahara and Africa
Bolletino del Centro Studi e Museo d’Arte Preistorica di Pinerolo, Italia
Survey 9-12, 111-117

Gawarecki, S. 1986/87
Geological applications of the study of prehistoric sites in the Eastern Desert of Egypt
Nekhen News 3 (1):  7-8

Gimbutas M. 1974
The Gods and Goddesses of Old Europe. 7000 to 3500 BC. Myths, Legends and Cult Images

Gimbutas, M. 1989
The Language of the Goddess

Gombrich, E.H, 1972
The Story of Art

Goodman, S.M. and Hobbs, J.J. 1988
The Ethnobotany of the Egyptian Eastern Desert:  A comparison of common plant usage between two culturally distinct Bedouin groups
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 23 (1988), p.73 – 89, Elsevier

Goring-Morris, A.N. 1998
Mobiliary art from the Late Epipalaeolithic of the Negev, Israel
Rock Art Research
Volume 15, Number 2, November 1998

Gowers, W. 1950
The Classical Rhinoceros
Antiquity 24, 1950, p.61-71

Groenfeldt, H. 1985
The interpretation of prehistoric art
with Comments by L. G. A. Smits, Alexander Gallus, Ann Sieveking, J. L. Dickman, Bruce J. Wright, Donald Brook and John Clegg
Rock Art Research
Volume 2, Number 1, May 1985

Hadley, N.G. and Szarek, S.R. 1981
Productivity of Desert Ecosystems
Bioscience, Vol.31, No.10, (November 1981), p.747-753

Harrell, J.A. 2002
Pharaonic Stone Quarries in the Egyptian Deserts
in Friedmann, R. (ed.)
Egypt and Nubia:  Gifts of the Desert
The British Museum Press

Harrell, J.A., Brown, V.M., Masoud, M.S. 2000
An Early Dynastic quarry for stone vessels at Gebel Manzal el-Seyl, Eastern Desert
The Journal of Egyptian Archeaology, vol.86 (2000), p.33-42

Harth, E. 1999
The Emergence of Art and Language in the Human Brain
Journal of Consciousness Studies, Vol. 6., No. 6-7, June/July 1999, p.97-115

Hassan, A.A and Hassan, F.A. 1981
Source of Galena in Predynastic Egypt at Nagada
Archaeometry 23, p.77-82

Hassan, F.A. 1985
Desertification and the Beginnings of Egyptian Agriculture
In Schoske, S. (ed)
Akten der Vierten International Agyptologische Kongress, Band 2, Munchen, p. 325-331

Hassan, F.A. 1998
The Earliest Goddesses of Egypt:  Divine Mothers and Cosmic Bodies
In Eds Goodison, L. and Morris, C.
In Ancient Goddesses:  The myths and the evidence. p.98-112
University of Wisconsin Press

Hawkes, T. 1977
Structuralism and Semiotics

Hayes 1965
Most Ancient Egypt
The University Of Chicago Press

Hellstrom, P. 1970
Scandinavian Joint Expedition to Sudanese Nubia, Volume 1 – the Rock Drawings
New York

Hendrickx 1986

Hendrickx, S. 1995
Analytical bibliography of the prehistory and the Early Dynastic period of Egypt and northern Sudan
Egyptian Prehistory, Monographs I.

Hendrickx, S. and Vermeersch, P. 2000.
From the Palaeolothic to the Badarian Culture (c.700,000-4000 BC).
In Shaw, I. (ed)
The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, p.17-43
Oxford University Press.

Herbert, S. and Wright, H. 1988/89
Report on the 1987 University of Michigan/University of Assiut expedition to Coptos and the Eastern Desert
NARCE 143/144, p.1-4

Herity, M. 1974
Irish Passage Graves
Irish University Press

Hinkel F.W. 1979
The Archaeological Map of the Sudan. The Area of the South Libyan Desert.  The Archaeological Map of the Sudan, part II.
Akademie Verlag,

Hobbs, J.J. 1989
Bedouin life in the Egyptian wilderness
University of Texas Press, Austin

Hobbs, J.J. 2002
On the Antiquities of the Eastern Desert
in Friedmann, R. (ed.)
Egypt and Nubia:  Gifts of the Desert
The British Museum Press

Hodder, I. 1990
The domestication of Europe

Hodgson, D. 2000
Art, perception and information processing: an evolutionary perspective
with Comments by Robert G. Bednarik, John L. Bradshaw, Paul Faulstich, Sylvia Fein, John Feliks, Elery Hamilton-Smith and Andrew Sherratt; and author’s Reply
Rock Art Research, Volume 17, Number 1, May 2000

Hoffman, M. 1979
Egypt Before the Pharaohs

Holl, A. 2004
Saharan Rock Art. Archaeology of Tassilian Pastoralist Iconography
Altamira Press

Holl, A.F.C. 1994
IN Smith 2005 Creating a Landscape

Holl, A. F. C. and Dueppen, S. A. 1999
Iheren I. Research on Tassilian pastoral iconography
Sahara 11, p.21-34

Holl, A.F.C. 2004a
Saharan Rock Art: Archaeology of Tassilian Pastoralist Iconography
AltaMira Press

Holl, A.F.C. 2004b
Holocene Saharans: An Anthropological Perspective
Continuum Publishing Group

Holmes, D. 1989
The Predynastic lithic industries of Upper Egypt:  A comparative study of the lithic traditions of Badari, Naqada and Hierakonpolis
BAR International Series 469, Oxford

Houlihan, P.F. 1996
The Animal World of the Pharaohs

Humphrey, N. 1999
Cave art, autism and the evolution of the human brain
With commentaries by Bahn, P, Bloom, P., Frith, U., Zubrow, E., Mithen, S., Tattersall, I., Knight, C., McManus, C., and Dennett, D.
Journal of Consciousness Studies, Vol. 6., No. 6-7, June/July 1999, p.116-122 (commentaries and author’s response, p.123-144

Huyge, D. 1984
Rock drawings at the mouth of Wadi Hellal, El Kab (Upper Egypt)
In Krzyzaniak, L and Kobusiewicz, M. (eds)
Origin and Early Development of Food-Prodcuing Cultures in North-EAstern Africal

Huyge, D. 1998a
Possible representations of Palaeolithic fish-traps in Upper Egyptian rock art
With Comments by Friedrich Berger, Achilles Gautier and Jean-Loïc Le Quellec; and author’s Reply
Rock Art Research, Volume 15, Number 1, May 1998

Huyge, D. 1998b
“Battered Bulls”: Rock Art Destruction in Egypt
African Archaeological Review, Volume 15, Number 1 / March, 1998, p.3-11 (requires Athens access)

Huyge, D  2001
Dating Egypt’s Oldest Rock Art (El Hosh “fish-traps”)
Antiquity 75

Huyge, D. 2001-2002
Rock Art Research in Upper Egypt: The Environs of El-Hosh. Report on the work done in 1998
Annales du Service des Antiquités de l’Egypte 76 (2000-2001), 45-52.

Huyge, D. 2002a
Cosmology, Ideology and Personal Religious Practice in Ancient Egyptian Rock Art
in Friedmann, R. (ed.)
Egypt and Nubia:  Gifts of the Desert
The British Museum Press

Huyge, D. 2002b
L’art le plus ancien de la Valle du Nil:  les pecheurs d’El-Hosh
ArchaeoNil, Numero 12, December 2002

Huyge, D., Watchman, A., De Dapper, M. and Marchi, E. 2001
Dating Egypt’s oldest ‘art;:  AMS 14C age determinations of rock varnishes covering petroglyphs at El-Hosh (Upper Egypt)
Antiquity 75, no. 287, 2001, p.68-72

Huyge, D., Aubert, M., Barnard, H., Claes, W., Darnell, J.C., De Dapper, M., Figari, E., Ikram, S., Lebrun-Nélis, A., and Therasse, I. 2007
Lascaux along the Nile’: Late Pleistocene rock art in Egypt
Antiquity, Vol 81, No 313, September 2007

Ibrahim, N.F. and Ibrahim, B. 2003
Egypt:  An Economic Geography
I.B. Tauris

Ingold, T. 1993
The temporality of landscape
World Archaeology 25 (2) p.152-74

Ingold, T. 1998
Mind, Brain and the Environment
In Cartledge, B., ed. 1998
Culture, nature, environment: steps to an ecology of life, p.158—180
Oxford University Press.

Ingold, T. 2000
The Perception of the Environment: essays on livelihood, dwelling & skill

Johnson, M.J. 1999
Archaeological Theory.  An Introduction

Joffe, A. 2000
Egypt and Syro-Mesopotamia in the 4th Millennium:  Implications of the New Chronology
Current Anthropology Volume 41, Number 1, February 2000

Judd. T. 2006
Presumed giraffe petroglyphs in the Eastern Desert of Egypt:
style, location and Nubian comparisons
Tony Judd (United Kingdom)
Rock Art Research, Volume 23, Number 1, May 2006

Kantor 1944

Kaiser, W. 1957
Zur inneren Chronologie der Naqadakultur
Archaeologia Geographica. 6 (1957), p. 69-77

Kaiser, W. 1990
Zur Entstehung des gesamtägyptischen Staates
MDAIK 46 (1990). 287-299

Kamil, J. 1984, revised 1996.
The Ancient Egyptians – Life in the Old Kingdom
American University in Cairo Press

Kantor, H. 1942
The Early Relations of Egypt with Asia
Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 1, p.174-213

Kantor, H. 1944
The final phase of Predynastic culture, Gerzean or Semainean?
Journal of Near Eastern Studies 3, p.110-136.

Kantor, H. 1952
Further evidence for early Mesopotamian relations with Egypt
Journal of Near Eastern Studies 11, p.239-250

Keenan, J. 2003
The Lesser Gods of the Sahara
Journal of North African Studies (Special Issue) 8 (3-4), p.193-225

Kemp, B. 1982

Kitchen, K.A. 2005
Ancient Peoples West of the Red Sea in Pre-Calssical Antiquity
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Online Resources

Please note that where a paper is referred to in the text of this site which originally appeared in an academic journal or other print resource, but has been made available online as well, this will only appear in the main bibliography as part of the full citation.  The pages listed in this section are ONLY available online.  This of course means that they may not be available indefinitely, and it is strongly recommended that you save or print any pages that are of interest, whilst they are still available online.  I really don’t like referencing websites for this reason, but sometimes it is a quick and useful way in which to assemble information . 


  • Rock Art
    • Theory, method and other disciplines
    • Eastern Desert
    • Nile Valley
    • Western Desert
    • North Africa
    • Case studies from elsewhere
  • Prehistoric and Predynastic archaeology
  • Pharaonic Archeaology
  • Graeco-Roman-Byzantine archaeology


Rock Art

Theory, Method, other Disciplines

Rock Art and Prehistoric Archaeology: Considerations on an underestimated source of information
By Christian Züchner 20th June 2000

Dating Rock Art

Desert Rock Coatings
By Ronald Dorn
To be published in Geomorphology of Desert Environments (2nd Edn)
Ed. A.J. Parsons and A. Abrahams (anticipated 2007)
“There are over a dozen different types of rock coatings (Table 1).  Within each type, tremendous variety exists at spatial scales from kilometres to micrometres. For example, there are at least six different types of silica glazes (Dorn, 1998: 294-312).  Interdigitation also exists between different types of rock coatings, resulting in complex microstratigraphic sequences. For example, lava flows in the arid Ashikule Basin of Tibet host carbonate skins, dust films, lithobiontic coatings, oxalate crusts, phosphate skins, rock varnish, silica glazes, and sulfate crusts. In another example, lithobionts like lichens are normally associated with rock weathering, but they can also play key roles in generating silica glazes (Lee and Parsons, 1999) and oxalate crusts (Beazley et al., 2002). Given the variety and complexity of rock coatings, it should be of no surprise that researchers not infrequently confuse


Research on the Archaeological Geology of Ancient Egypt (website)
By James A. Harrell

Eastern Desert

Desert Boats – rock art of the Egyptian Eastern Desert (website)
Francis  Lankester
PhD candidate (Durham University) researching Eastern Desert rock art.  Pages, with short descriptions and photographs include:

  • Introduction
  • Wadi Abbad rock art
  • Wadi Barramiya
  • Wadi Abu Wasil – Site 26
  • Wadi Mineh
  • Wadi Hammamat
  • Wadi Atwani

An Oasis of Art in the Egyptian Desert (web page)
News report about Douglas Brewer’s University of Illinois team and their survey of rock art in the Egyptian Eastern Desert.  For security reasons no locational information is provided.

Nile Valley

El Hosh, Nile Valley (web page)
Archaeological Expeditions from the Netherlands and Flanders. Summary of the main work carried out so far at El Hosh in Upper Egypt, where 1000s of rock art images have been discovered.

History in petroglyphs at the Second Cataract of the Nile (50-page paper in PDF format)

Qurta Palaeolithic Rock Art
Rock art surveying by a Belgian archaeological mission in March-April 2004 in the el-Hosh area on the west bank of the Nile, about 30km south of Edfu in Upper Egypt, led to the discovery of a hitherto unknown petroglyph locality at the southernmost tip of a Nubian sandstone hill called Abu Tanqura Bahari, about 4km south of the modern village of el-Hosh (Figure 1). This locality (designated ATB11) shows, among other things, several images of bovids executed in a vigorous naturalistic, ‘Franco-Cantabrian, Lascaux-like’ style, which are quite different from the stylised cattle representations in the ‘classical’ Predynastic iconography of the fourth millennium BC. On the basis of patination and weathering, these bovid representations are definitely extremely old. They most probably predate the fish-trap representations and associated scenery previously documented at several locations in the el-Hosh area and AMS 14C dated to >7000 BP (Huyge et al. 2001; Huyge 2005).
By Whitney Davis

Western Desert

The Libyan Desert Rock Art (large section on website)
By Andras Zboray

Discoveries in the Western Desert of Egypt  (web page)
By Carlo Bergmann

Rock the Oasis (web page)
By Salima Ikram

North Africa

Heinrich Barth, Leo Frobenius et l’Apollon garamante: Les premières découvertes de gravures rupestres au Sahara (web page)
By Jean-Loïc Le Quellec

See links page on:


Old Masters  (web page),,1791174,00.html
An analysis of how human are depicted in rock art.

Dating Arnhemland rock art (web page)
By Chippindale and Tacon 1998

Introducing the World Archives of Rock Art (WARA): 50.000 years of visual arts (website)
Emmanuel Anati, Centro Camuno di Studi Preistorici
Published in New discoveries, new interpretations, new research methods,
XXI Valcamonica Symposium , Capo di Ponte, Edizioni del Centro, 2004, pp.51-69.

Southern African Rock-Art Sites (long web page)
By Janette Deacon 2002 in collaboration with members of the Southern African Rock Art Project (SARAP)

Rock Art Archive (website)
“The Rock Art Archive is the repository of several major private collections of rock art data. Each is unique and all are of great significance for specific sites and for the field in general. These materials, and others, are a precious legacy from pioneers in the field of rock art studies. Archive staff are applying the latest methods in computer technology to preserve the collections for future research.
In addition to its extensive collections, the Archive holds site reports, site records and research reports, with established standards for three basis levels of site documentation. These levels, in turn, facilitate corresponding levels of research and access.”

Dampier (Australian rock art studies – a case study)
Bird, C. and Hallam, S.J. 2006
Archaeology and rock art in the Dampier Archipelago – A report prepared for the National Trust of Australia (WA)

The landscape context of Valcamonica/Valtellina Alpine rock-art
Craig Alexander
First Year Report, Hughes Hall, University of Cambridge, 19th May 2006

De la Préhistoire à l’ordinateur en brûlant des étapes (website)
By Paul Tréhin
From Autism to the Origins of Art, Computer applications, Artificial Intelligence

See links page on:


Prehistoric and Predynastic archaeology

Prehistoric and Predynstic Egypt (website)
By Andie Byrnes

New Results about the Clayton Rings – Earliest Desert Travellers in North-East Africa (part of web page)
By Heiko Riemer (ACACIA)


Pharaonic archaeology

Turin Papyrus Map from Ancient Egypt
By James A. Harrell, Ph.D., Professor of Geology, Department of Environmental Sciences (Mail Stop #604),
The University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft St, Toledo, Ohio 43606-3390, USAThe Promise of Egypt’s Maritime Legacy (web page)
By Cheryll Ward, PhD. From the INA Quarterly 20.2 (1993) 3-7
A short paper that looks at different boat designs and construction techniques from different periods of Egypt’s past. 

Selection of Wadi Hammamat Inscriptions translated (web page)
Andre Dollinger’s excellent Egytpology resource entitled An introduction to the history and culture of Pharaonic Egypt has provided all the translations of Wadi Hammamat inscriptions shown on this site’s Archaeology page/  My thanks to him for making the information freely available. 

Luxor-Farshût Desert Road Survey
Reports by Darnell and Darnell on the road survey of the Qena Bend, which includes archaeology from all periods.

An introduction to the history and culture of Pharaonic Egypt by André Dollinger
Hammamat Inscriptions Page
Andre Dollinger’s excellent encyclopedic pages about all aspects of Ancient Egypt include a page on Wadi Hammamat with a number of key Pharaonic inscriptions translated into English. 


Graeco-Roman’Byzantine archaeology

Quseir al-Qadim Project (section on University of Southampton website)
This project focuses on the site of Quseir al-Qadim on the southern Egyptian Red Sea coast, and its surrounding landscape. The project is a collaboration between researchers from a number of institutions world wide and is particularly focussed on the sharing and representation of archaeological knowledge.  The site of Quseir al-Qadim (old Quseir) is eight kilometres north of the modern town of Quseir, on the Egyptian Red Sea coast. Four seasons of fieldwork have now been completed on site.

Report re Mons Claudianus (web page)
British Archaeology 28, 1997
Marijke Van der Veen

Bibliography for Mons Claudianus (web page)

Report re Mons Porphyrites (web page)
“In five seasons, between 1994-1998 the Departments of Archaeology at the Universities of Southampton and Exeter

Bir Umm Fawakhir  (large section on web site)
Introduction and annual excavation reports

Berenice (website)

Eastern Desert Ware – A short introduction
“Eastern Desert Ware (EDW) refers to a rather recently identified corpus of relatively small, hand-made vessels with a remarkable surface treatment, mostly dating from the 4th-6th centuries AD and found in the Eastern Desert, between the Nile and the Red Sea, in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. It is assumed that these vessels were produced and used by the indigenous, nomadic inhabitants of the desert at the time.”

Sire, il n’y pas de Blemmyes.  A Re-Evaluation of Historical and Archaeological Data (PDF)
Hans Barnard

Eastern Desert Ware. A Short Introduction (website)
Hans Barnard
“Eastern Desert Ware (EDW) refers to a rather recently identified corpus of relatively small, hand-made vessels with a remarkable surface treatment, mostly dating from the 4th-6th centuries AD and found in the Eastern Desert, between the Nile and the Red Sea, in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. It is assumed that these vessels were produced and used by the indigenous, nomadic inhabitants of the desert at the time.”

In 1994 an American-Dutch team of archaeologists lead by Prof. Dr. Steven E. Sidebotham and Dr. Willemina Z. Wendrich (succeeded in 2002 by Drs. Hendrikje M. Nouwens) initiated excavations at Berenike, the most important Red Sea port of the Ptolemaic kings and the Roman Empire. Simultaneously surveys of the immense hinterland of the town were conducted. Nine years later excavations were started in Sikait, a Roman town some 100 kilometers (about 62 miles) northwest of Berenike and deep in the vast maze of mountains and wadis of the Eastern Desert. Several reasons lead to the decision to start working in this extremely isolated location.


Forthcoming or In Press:

  • John Darnell
    • “Graffiti and Rock Inscriptions,” chapter in J. Allen and I. Shaw, eds., Oxford Handbook of Egyptology (Oxford)
    • “The Deserts,” chapter in T. Wilkinson, ed., The Egyptian World (Routledge)
  • Ronald Dorn
    Desert Rock Coatings. To be published in Geomorphology of Desert Environments (2nd Edn), Ed. A.J. Parsons and A. Abrahams (anticipated 2007)


Rock art at the 4th Cataract 2006
Cornelia Kleinitz, Sudan Archaeological Research Society (SARC), Max Planck Institute
Lecture at the Institute of Archaeology, UCL delivered on 26th October 2006

Walking in the Footsteps of Gertrude Caton-Thompson and Elinor W. Gardner:  Surveys by Kharga Oasis Prehistory Project (KOPP)
Kleindienst, M. R., McDonald, M.M.A, Wiseman, M.F., Hawkins, A.L., Smith, J.R., Kieniewicz, J.M., and Adelsberger, K.A. 2006
Society of Africanist Archaeologists 2006 Conference,M.SAfA2006.pdf

Kharga Oasis, Egypt: key to timing transdesert contacts in the mid-Holocene
By Mary M.A. McDonald
Society of Africanist Archaeologists 2006 Conference,M.SAfA2006.pdf

Conference Announcement

From Hans Barnard:
I would like to take this opportunity to announce our plans to have a seminar on the history of the Eastern Desert, in the Netherlands-Flemish Institute in Cairo, in November 2008 (about a year and a half from now).   This is meant to result in a publication aimed to narrow the focus of ‘Life on the Fringe’ and ‘The Archaeology of Mobility’ to the inhabitants and intruders through time in the Eastern Desert (roughly between Khartoum-Alexandria-Jerusalem-Mecca). More information will be forwarded as it becomes available, also through for now please save the date.
Hans Barnard MD, Research Associate
Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA
P.O.-box 951510; Los Angeles, CA 90095
+1 (310) 26-75550; <>


Copyright Andie Byrnes 2007

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